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“It is the goal of every beekeeper to maintain healthy, productive colonies. This can only be accomplished by reducing the frequency and prevalence of disease within beehives. The following is an outline of recommendations for detecting and treating colonies for economically important parasites and pathogens of honey bees so that beekeepers may achieve this goal, and do so in a sustainable way for the long-term health of their colonies.”

Disease/Pest Causative Agent Symptoms
Adult Parasites
Varroa mites The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Presence of adult mites, deformed wings
Tracheal mites The parasitic mite Acarapis woodi K-wings, morbidity
Nosema The protozoan Nosema apis Diarrhea, distended abdomens
Brood Pathogens
American foulbrood (AFB) The bacterium Paenibacillus larvae Discolored larvae, foul smelling brood, ropy remains, scale
European foulbrood (EFB) The bacterium Melissococcus pluton and associated flora Discolored larvae, foul smelling brood, non-ropy remains, no scale
Chalkbrood The fungus Ascophaera apis White or black mummies in cells or on bottom board
Sacbrood A viral infection Brown larvae in the curled “canoe” shape
Hive Pests
Wax moths Larvae of Galaria mellonella Silk cocoons and/or tunnels
Small hive beetle (SHB) Larvae of Aethinda tumida Wet combs, maggot-like larvae

Read the full Extension Guide titled “Disease Management and Guidelines for the Honey Bee by NC State Extension here: https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/disease-management-and-guidelines-for-the-honey-bee